[36][37] Currently, a number of infectious agents are accepted as the cause of disease despite their not fulfilling all of Koch's postulates. [3], During the early Middle Ages, Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) mentioned "plague-bearing seeds" (pestifera semina) in his On the Nature of Things (c. AD 613). [9], In Antiquity, the Greek historian Thucydides (c. 460 – c. 400 BC) was the first person to write, in his account of the plague of Athens, that diseases could spread from an infected person to others. should treat patients with those types of problems. And then there was the danger of tetanus, especially if the wound had happened in the open or in a field; it usually killed too. [34][35] Attempts to rigidly apply Koch's postulates to the diagnosis of viral diseases in the late 19th century, at a time when viruses could not be seen or isolated in culture, may have impeded the early development of the field of virology. In 1646, Kircher (or "Kirchner", as it is often spelled), wrote that "a number of things might be discovered in the blood of fever patients". Although some people died despite the treatment, many recovered. On August 12, 1865, Lister was called to see a boy of 11 who had a compound fracture of his tibia (the broken bone had cut through the flesh and the skin and so into bacteria that were lying on the skin and so. Lucretius with Rev. However, such views were held in disdain in Europe, where Galen's miasma theory remained dominant among scientists and doctors. Pasteur saved France's silk industry by developing a method to screen silkworms eggs for those that were not infected, a method that is still used today to control this and other silkworm diseases. Lister discovered that carbolic acid prevented wounds from developing infection. Having rejected effluvia and the poisoning of the blood in the first instance, and being led to the conclusion that the disease is something that acts directly on the alimentary canal, the excretions of the sick at once suggest themselves as containing some material which being accidentally swallowed might attach itself to the mucous membrane of the small intestines, and there multiply itself by appropriation of surrounding matter, in virtue of molecular changes going on within it, or capable of going on, as soon as it is placed in congenial circumstances. Joseph Lister: father of modern surgery. Such infections, according to the theory, were not passed between individuals but would affect those within a locale that gave rise to such vapors. LISTER'S RESEARCHES. Although Snow's chemical and microscope examination of a water sample from the Broad Street pump did not conclusively prove its danger, his studies of the pattern of the disease were convincing enough to persuade the local council to disable the well pump by removing its handle. Similar treatments had been prevalent in India from just before AD 1000. Besides these, the observations and actions of Ignaz Semmelweis, Joseph Lister and John Snow would retrospectively be acknowledged as contributing to the acceptance of germ theory. Lister soaked bandages in a dilute solution of carbolic acid and applied them to the wound, changing the dressing every day. Gideon Mantell, the Sussex doctor more famous for discovering dinosaur fossils, spent time with his microscope, and speculated in his Thoughts on Animalcules (1850) that perhaps "many of the most serious maladies which afflict humanity, are produced by peculiar states of invisible animalcular life".[28]. In spite of continuing to improve the results of this method, which Lister called antisepsis, he was initially unable to convince the medical/surgical world to embrace it; it took nearly 20 years before the vigorous campaigning done by this modest, self-effacing—but indomitable—Quaker surgeon began to make significant headway. [24] Kircher's conclusion that disease was caused by microorganisms was correct, although it is likely that what he saw under the microscope were in fact red or white blood cells and not the plague agent itself. He placed a meatloaf and egg in each of the three jars. H. C. Ernst. saw bacteria similar to those that a Louis Pasteur had identified in putrefying wine and beer a few years earlier. [8], The Mosaic Law contains the earliest sentiment of contagion in the spread of disease, standing in contrast with classical medical tradition and the Hippocratic writings. He also showed that houses supplied by cleaner upriver water from a Lambeth Waterworks Company supply at Seething Wells had far lower cholera mortality rates. The Italian Agostino Bassi was the first person to prove that a disease was caused by a microorganism when he conducted a series of experiments between 1808 and 1813, demonstrating that a "vegetable parasite" caused a disease in silkworms known as calcinaccio which was devastating the French silk industry at the time. Using carbolic acid – only 6 of 40 patients (15%) had died. In 1865, he learned of Louis Pasteur's theory that microorganisms cause infection. Robert Koch is known for developing four basic criteria (known as Koch's postulates) for demonstrating, in a scientifically sound manner, that a disease is caused by a particular organism. Lister knew that the injury would become 1) infected and that the only cure would be 2) amputation, an operation with a 3) mortality rate of about 45%. Famous by now, hundreds of people flocked to hear him speak and the "germ theory of disease" became more widely accepted. And in 1889, an American surgeon, William Halsted, enhanced asepsis by inventing rubber gloves. In America, debate raged until the late 1880s about the validity of Lister’s techniques. [20], A basic form of contagion theory dates back to medicine in the medieval Islamic world, where it was proposed by Persian physician Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna in Europe) in The Canon of Medicine (1025), which later became the most authoritative medical textbook in Europe up until the 16th century. He discovered the pathology of the puerperal fever[32] and the pyogenic vibrio in the blood, and suggested using boric acid to kill these microorganisms before and after confinement. Asserting that puerperal fever was a contagious disease and that matter from autopsies were implicated in its development, Semmelweis made doctors wash their hands with chlorinated lime water before examining pregnant women. On the other hand, Lord Lister wasa physician, so he did appreciate the analogy between germ formation and putrefaction in a wound. Lister kept thinking about the high rate of infection and mortality in patients. Find out about the life of Joseph Lister. [5][6], The miasma theory was the predominant theory of disease transmission before the germ theory took hold towards the end of the 19th century, and it is no longer accepted as a scientific theory of disease. He was appointed professor of surgery at Glasgow and quickly became a popular teacher. - … After a few days, he observed that the meatloaf in the open jar was covered with maggots, and the jar covered with gauze had maggots on the surface of the gauze. Bit by bit, this missionary zeal began to have an effect in England, Ireland, and Scotland. Snow's 1849 recommendation that water be "filtered and boiled before it is used" is one of the first practical applications of germ theory in the area of public health and is the antecedent to the modern boil-water advisory. This led Lister to recognize the role of bacteria entering wounds from the air; and, therefore, he developed the antiseptic treatment of wounds (with carbolic aci… Even though the germ theory of disease pioneered by Girolamo Fracastoro had not yet achieved full development or widespread currency, Snow demonstrated a clear understanding of germ theory in his writings. After Joseph Lister’s discovery and work  in the 1860s and 1870s of. Koch's postulates were developed in the 19th century as general guidelines to identify pathogens that could be isolated with the techniques of the day. And so, with the except for laudable pus, the appearance of any other kind of infection meant a very likely death; >45% mortality with this type of pus/infection. For the morbid matter of cholera having the property of reproducing its own kind, must necessarily have some sort of structure, most likely that of a cell. Germ Theory and Its Applications to Medicine & On the Antiseptic Principle of [sic.in] the Practice of Surgery: Louis Pasteur and Joseph Lister. Pitt D(1), Aubin JM. To accept his proposal would have meant accepting the fecal-oral method transmission of disease, which they dismissed.[31]. Later, researchers discovered that this public well had been dug only three feet from an old cesspit, which had begun to leak fecal bacteria. Pasteur first looked at normal wine under his microscope and saw yeast, And when he looked at the putrefied wine, he also saw rod-shaped structures. In England, no one knew that much about microscopy. The operating theater scene is similar to that of the earlier painting, except it is … [2], The concept of invisible contagion was later discussed by several Islamic scholars in the Ayyubid Sultanate who referred to them as najasat ("impure substances"). Nothing grew in the broths: therefore the living organisms that grew in such broths came from outside, as spores on dust, rather than being generated within the broth. These postulates grew out of his seminal work with anthrax using purified cultures of the pathogen that had been isolated from diseased animals. "Germ" may refer to not just a bacterium but to any type of microorganism, such as protists or fungi, or even non-living pathogens that can cause disease, such as viruses, prions, or viroids. [16] And in his Epidemics (c. AD 176–178), Galen explained that patients might relapse during recovery from fever because some "seed of the disease" lurked in their bodies, which would cause a recurrence of the disease if the patients didn't follow a physician's therapeutic regimen. More meticulous surgery was then being performed, the importance of laboratory work was becoming more evident, and striking information from France and Germany began to emerge: In 1876, the German Robert Koch was the first to identify a specific bacterium as the cause of a disease—anthrax. Any association with living microbes was considered fortuitist. 19th Century surgery was crude, bloody, painful, and almost always fatal. Lecture 14 - The Germ Theory of Disease Overview. Sir Joseph Lister’s impact on the field of surgery was monumentous, applying the germ theory to humans and solving the mystery of why wounds so often got infected. In 1867, Lister published a series of five papers in the Lancet (a medical journal in Britain) to announce the invention of what he called. A new biography of surgeon Joseph Lister called The Butchering Art is not about food. This experience encouraged Lister to start treating worse fractures, local infections, and certain types of abscesses with carbolic acid. The surgeon then repeatedly dipped his hands in carbolic acid during the operation and the instruments were also dipped in it. Its opening was originally under a nearby house, which had been rebuilt farther away after a fire. The second postulate may also be suspended for certain microorganisms or entities that cannot (at the present time) be grown in pure culture, such as prions responsible for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. [7] Miasma was considered to be a poisonous vapor or mist filled with particles from decomposed matter (miasmata) that was identifiable by its foul smell. In the 1870s, Joseph Lister was instrumental in developing practical applications of the germ theory of disease with respect to sanitation in medical settings and aseptic surgical techniques—partly through the use of carbolic acid (phenol) as an antiseptic. carrying out experiments in which he found that he could kill the organisms with carbolic acid, chemical on a series of patients and lowered. Lister read the article and concluded that this was likely the cause of infection in wounds. By talking to local residents, he identified the source of the outbreak as the public water pump on Broad Street (now Broadwick Street). To kill them, he heated the wine to a certain level—enough to just kill the bacteria but not alter the wine (or whatever else) in a process that became known as. Most families tried to have their raw sewage collected and dumped in the Thames to prevent their cesspit from filling faster than the sewage could decompose into the soil. Snow later used a dot map to illustrate the cluster of cholera cases around the pump. Those "very little animalcules" he was able to isolate from different sources, such as rainwater, pond and well water, and the human mouth and intestine. Acceptance finally came after the Franco-Prussian War, in light of the following statistic: In the French army, there had been 13,173 amputations, of which 10,006 resulted in death. A year after graduation, he went to Edinburgh to study and work with the distinguished Scottish surgeon: James Syme. He also noticed that the maggots were found only on surfaces that were accessible by flies. which gave Lister a chance to go to England and, his countrymen. Acceptance of Lister’s technique was gradual. His father was Joseph Jackson Lister, a wine merchant and he had a hobby: optics. Leeuwenhoek is said to be the first to see and describe bacteria (1674), yeast cells, the teeming life in a drop of water (such as algae), and the circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries. 2012 Oct;55(5):E8-9. Dr. Joseph Lister became a surgeon in a time in which Germ Theory was considered "Fake News". It was common at the time to have a cesspit under most homes. [4][N 1] A transitional period began in the late 1850s with the work of Louis Pasteur. Pasteur thought that these bacteria—bacilli—were the cause of the putrefaction. Today, the Germ theory of Disease still remains a guiding theory that underlies contemporary biomedicine. Lister attended University College London. Despite this evidence, he and his theories were rejected by most of the contemporary medical establishment. certain diseases are caused by the invasion of the body by microorganisms, organisms too small to be seen except through a microscope. Lister returned to Edinburgh in 1869 as successor to Syme as Professor of Surgery at the University of Edinburgh. Hospitals were commonly known as death houses and something to be avoided if you had any money. Often disturbing—particularly some of the descriptions of surgery—but fascinating. Near the end of Lister’s crusade, even more aspects were then being added to his antisepsis; The technique involved scrubbing one’s hands, boiling surgical instruments and drapes, and having surgeons wear sterile gowns and caps. By the early 19th century, smallpox vaccination was commonplace in Europe, though doctors were unaware of how it worked or how to extend the principle to other diseases. The figures in Paris were worse—60% of patients with amputations died; in Zurich, 46%; in Glasgow, 34%. Germ theory is also called the pathogenic theory of medicine. Joseph Lister was an English surgeon, the first to provide a solution to the problem of wound infection following surgical operations. The most powerful evidence in support of Lister came in the form of a book Koch wrote 2 years later, in which he linked six different kinds of surgical infection to six specific bacteria. Recent stuff #29 Yelling, cursing are less likely to break out in operating rooms when…. Surgeons were rough-and-ready artisans; they worked fast in the hope of minimizing this. Few major advancements in the field of surgery can be considered as important as the work of Dr. Lister—the application of germ cell theory to the surgical arena. Noninfection may be due to such factors as general health and proper immune functioning; acquired immunity from previous exposure or vaccination; or genetic immunity, as with the resistance to malaria conferred by possessing at least one sickle cell allele. Asymptomatic or subclinical infection carriers are now known to be a common feature of many infectious diseases, especially viruses such as polio, herpes simplex, HIV, and hepatitis C. As a specific example, all doctors and virologists agree that poliovirus causes paralysis in just a few infected subjects, and the success of the polio vaccine in preventing disease supports the conviction that the poliovirus is the causative agent. It was composed of a mix of microbes, some of them anaerobes (which do not need oxygen to survive); this thin, liquid pus was referred to as ichorous, or watery pus and it mostly killed every time too. Many surgeons simply expected germs to live in wounds; others claimed that germs (the bacteria) appeared in wounds only after the infection had started. Ultimately, Lister published a comparison of amputations done with and without carbolic acid. When Rome was struck by the bubonic plague in 1656, Kircher investigated the blood of plague victims under the microscope. Specifically, it presents instructions on quarantine and washing in relation to leprosy and venereal disease. Comments would be appreciated at, Events/articles on surgical/medical/other topics, Housestaffers (medical students, interns, and residents), nurses and orderlies, Various surgical-medical-health-aphorisms, Clinical case #1 Staphylococcal septicemia, Clinical case # 10 The case against appendectomies. And then, in 1865, surgeon: Dr. Joseph Lister of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary placed some pus from the wound infection of one of his patients under a microscope (the type of microscope that his father, also a Joseph Lister, had previously improved upon and because of that, his father, had then been. In 1867, James Simpson, a distinguished surgeon and gynecologist in Edinburgh, reported an extensive study that showed 41% of patients who had amputations died if the amputations were performed in hospitals with more than 300 beds; this figure included finger and toe amputations. His father developed better microscopes so he would have known about science which would have helped his career In surgery/doctors. The Louis Pasteur germ theory came into being when the French chemist showed processes such as putrefaction and fermentation … raised to the peerage as Baron Lister, of. Lister studied the function and structure of muscle, blood clotting, and inflammation, trying to find out what starts inflammation and blood coagulation. Ultimately, the theory espoused by von Plenciz was not accepted by the scientific community. Print. [22] Later in 1345, Tommaso del Garbo (c. 1305–1370) of Bologna, Italy mentioned Galen's "seeds of plague" in his work Commentaria non-parum utilia in libros Galeni (Helpful commentaries on the books of Galen).[23]. [citation needed] The diaper of a baby, who had contracted cholera from another source, had been washed into this cesspit. And while the operating room then smelled unpleasant, many patients were surviving their operations. The theory posited that diseases were the product of environmental factors such as contaminated water, foul air, and poor hygienic conditions. Ignaz Semmelweis, a Hungarian obstetrician working at the Vienna General Hospital (Allgemeines Krankenhaus) in 1847, noticed the dramatically high maternal mortality from puerperal fever following births assisted by doctors and medical students. Joseph listers background. In the 1870s, Joseph Lister was instrumental in developing practical applications of the germ theory of disease with respect to sanitation in medical settings and aseptic surgical techniques—partly through the use of carbolic acid (phenol) as an antiseptic. […] In 1861, Lister observed that 45 to 50 percent of amputation patients died from sepsis. He graduated from the University of London in 1852 and began a surgical career in Edinburgh. His studies with the microscope led him to the belief, which he was possibly the first to hold, that disease and putrefaction (decay) were caused by the presence of invisible living bodies. He enrolled in its medical school and graduated with honors in 1852. 110-17. "[14], The Greek physician Galen (AD 129 – c. 200/c. By the mid-eighteen hundreds, virtually all surgeons believed that there was no way to lower the then approximate 45% mortality rate caused by doing any sort of surgery! In medicine, the theory that states the cause of diseases to be microorganisms is called germ theory or the germ theory of disease. John Snow was a skeptic of the then-dominant miasma theory. And then, in 1865, surgeon: Dr. Joseph Lister of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary placed some pus from the wound infection of one of his patients under a microscope (the type of microscope that his father, also a Joseph Lister, had previously improved upon and because of that, his father, had then been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society) and Dr. Lister saw bacteria similar to those that a Louis Pasteur had identified in putrefying wine and beer a few years earlier. This work was later extended by Robert Koch in the 1880s. Hospital wards were occasionally aired out at midday as a precaution against the spread of infection via miasma, but facilities for washing hands or a patient's wounds were not available. In his poem, De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things, c. 56 BC), the Roman poet Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) stated that the world contained various "seeds", some of which could sicken a person if they were inhaled or ingested. ", second edition, 1850 (May have appeared in first edition, too. The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure. Biography of Joseph Lister - from Living Age (1918) Germ Theory & The Antiseptic Principle, by Louis Pasteur, Joseph Lister. By the end of that decade, the miasma theory was struggling to compete with the germ theory of disease. He offered Lister the post of house surgeon aka an internship/residency and about a year later, Syme asked Lister to be his assistant. 1. with the manufacturing and the use of microscopes: Following his father’ interest, Joseph Lister had become an expert in the use of the microscope by the time he was in his teens. Eventually, a "golden era" of bacteriology ensued, during which the germ theory quickly led to the identification of the actual organisms that cause many diseases. [38] Therefore, while Koch's postulates retain historical importance and continue to inform the approach to microbiologic diagnosis, fulfillment of all four postulates is not required to demonstrate causality. Bacteria had been known for a coup. [25], In 1720, Richard Bradley theorised that the plague and 'all pestilential distempers' were caused by 'poisonous insects', living creatures viewable only with the help of microscopes.[26]. This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 15:28. Instead of merely striding into an operating room, amputating a leg within a minute or two, and then, maybe, washing their hands, surgeons were now being asked/told to 1) change their clothes, 2) spray their hands and instruments with carbolic acid and 3) spray the wound repeatedly, and 4) and finally apply a complicated dressing and more. This is a part of the why and the where the term ‘internist’ came from, in that if any surgeon tried to do anything to the abdomen and chest, their/that patient would most assuredly die and so only non-surgeons (so-called internists) should treat patients with those types of problems. The third postulate specifies "should", not "must", because as Koch himself proved in regard to both tuberculosis and cholera,[34] not all organisms exposed to an infectious agent will acquire the infection. )), Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company, "germ – definition of germ in English from the Oxford dictionary", "Epilepsy, Theories and Treatment Inside Corpus Hippocraticum", U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, "The Life and Work of Athanaseus Kircher, S.J. The third type of pus, and also very common, was known as hospital gangrene; it stank. Although the development of the germ theory of disease in the latter half of the nineteenth century marks a major revolution in medical science, comparable to the discoveries of Galileo in astronomy or Darwin in biology, it cannot be reduced to the heroic efforts of a single researcher or group of researchers. By dabbing wounds with carbolic acid, as well as dressing the wounds in acid-dipped lint, Lister was able to stop the putrification of wounds and sepsis altogether. In Book IV of the El-Kanun, Ibn Sina discussed epidemics, outlining the classical miasma theory and attempting to blend it with his own early contagion theory. He noted the presence of "little worms" or "animalcules" in the blood and concluded that the disease was caused by microorganisms. Pasteur further demonstrated between 1860 and 1864 that fermentation and the growth of microorganisms in nutrient broths did not proceed by spontaneous generation. The statistic for the Pennsylvania Hospital was 24%; Massachusetts General, 26%. 5 Apr - short biography, births, deaths and events on date of Lister's birth. It was Kircher who first proposed that living beings enter and exist in the blood. Before Lister's studies of surgery, many people believed that chemical damage from exposure to "bad air", or miasma, was responsible for infections in wounds. Can J Surg. Trans. Louis Pasteur was a French chemist-turned-microbiologist, who proved the existence of microbes in air. And while Lister had looked at some of the pus from wound infections and saw the bacteria, but he didn’t know how to kill them. Dr. Joseph Lister Joseph Lister, a surgeon, took germ theory a step further and developed a means of sterilizing wounds and medical instruments using carbolic acid. Further, American doctors had virtually no experience with microscopes. The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism. no infection! He first published his theory in an 1849 essay On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, in which he correctly suggested that the fecal-oral route was the mode of communication, and that the disease replicated itself in the lower intestines. Carbolic spray. Joseph Lister the Father of Modern Antisepsis (1860s) Despite previous discoveries to the contrary, a prevailing belief persisted that wound infection was due to tissue exposed to stinking "miasma" in air, and it was still considered unnecessary for a surgeon to wash his hands before seeing a patient. (Revise date in article to 1846, if so. The English, Joseph Lister, German Robert Koch and French chemist Louis Pasteur are credited with the development of the germ theory of disease. This elder Lister solved a problem that. One of his books written in 1646 contains a chapter in Latin, which reads in translation "Concerning the wonderful structure of things in nature, investigated by Microscope", stating "who would believe that vinegar and milk abound with an innumerable multitude of worms." https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-Lister-Baron-Lister-of-Lyme-Regis Germ theory led in to the development of antibiotics and hygienic practices. In 1700, physician Nicolas Andry argued that microorganisms he called "worms" were responsible for smallpox and other diseases. “The Germ Theory and Its Application to Medicine (Revised)” (1878). West Ham, Newham, Greater London, England, United Kingdom Joseph Lister is the surgeon who introduced new principles of cleanliness which transformed surgical practice in the late 1800s. Joseph Lister read Pasteur’s work on fermentation and questioned whether micro-organisms might cause infections in wounds in the same way that it ruined wine and decided to experiment with using one of Pasteur’s proposed techniques, that of exposing the wound to chemicals. This condition burned its way along and killed nearly every time. [1] Diseases caused by pathogens are called infectious diseases. Lister also married Syme’s daughter, Agnes and on their honeymoon, they went to all the leading medical centers in France and Germany (where French and German was spoken). He found out that germs were everywhere. Surgeons were convinced that the problem was insurmountable because of the unavoidable entry of surrounding air (and on that aspect they were somewhat right because air quality; part of which is keeping the number of particles (bacteria) in present-day ORs as low as possible), is still important in operating rooms. Lister’s lectures were on bacteriology and physiology, but since most of American doctors didn’t understand the science and they didn’t think it was important for the day-to-day practice of medicine/surgery. Their growth and reproduction within their hosts can cause disease. He mentioned that people can transmit disease to others by breath, noted contagion with tuberculosis, and discussed the transmission of disease through water and dirt. This, of course, made the surgery a horrible experience for the patient. However, the tightly sealed jar had no maggots inside or outside it. Even when a pathogen is the principal cause of a disease, environmental and hereditary factors often influence the severity of the disease, and whether a potential host individual becomes infected when exposed to the pathogen. The "vegetable parasite" is now known to be a fungus pathogenic to insects called Beauveria bassiana (named after Bassi). 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Was struck by the end of that decade, the connection between microbes and infectious as! 29 Yelling, cursing are less likely to break out in operating rooms when… as `` worms were. Could spray with this carbolic acid that had been washed into this cesspit views were held in disdain in,! Had virtually no experience with microscopes the history of public health and geography contracted... To be avoided if you had any money 14 - the germ theory of disease a series patients! Late 1880s about the high rate of infection and mortality in patients by studies. And from then on ( evermore ), surgery has been dated to about the high of! Disease overview a biography of Joseph Lister began his medical and surgical career, anesthetics just. By a specific organism as the cornerstone of modern surgery ' Find out where germs.! Has been dated to about the validity of Lister ’ s ability to demonstrate his theory bacteria... Development of antibiotics and hygienic practices had responded only to the development of antibiotics and hygienic practices air. On surfaces that were accessible by flies, where Galen 's miasma theory remained dominant scientists.: optics be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but nobody thought they caused.... ), surgery has been done using these procedures Transform the Grisly World Victorian... 1860 and 1864 body was exposed to air, and afterward joseph lister germ theory they rejected Snow 's theory not found... Thought they caused problems the study of infectious diseases still had not been made the operating and!

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