The large size and extreme diversity of the continent leads to enormous diversity among the marriage ceremonies and traditions that take place. Despite this, there are also many similarities between African weddings and the customs that surround them. However, in recent years the pattern is slowly changing, especially in urban areas. Three African Tribes Ceremonies Traditions and Rituals ⚞ The Maasai Manyatta Ceremony Modern Research Studies: An International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 4. PUBLISHED March 29, 2010 Retrieved from, World Book, Inc.,. To most African populations, clothing is a significant and important part of the engagement ceremony and the religious marriage ceremony. This is where the bride inherits gifts from her family with the purpose of using them within her new home. Rights (CESCR) under the heading ‘Article 10’ states: In the DRC the “family” results from a marriage contracted pursuant to article, 40 of the Constitution, which grants every individual the right to marry a, person of his or her choice, of the opposite sex, and to found a family. Generally, the woman would not live with her husband and would remain living with her parents. The Yoruba call this ‘Mo mi i mo e’ (know me and let me know you) while the Igbo call it ‘Ikutu aka n’ulo’ (Knock on the door). The, family is the basic unit of the human community and is organized so as to, ensure its unity, stability and protection. The Yoruba teach proverbs such as ““Bi omode ba to loko, aa fun loko, bi o ba to l’ada, aa fun l’ada” which translates to “when a child is ripe for hoe, he is given a hoe, if he is ripe for cutlass, he is given cutlass”.  It is cemented into their culture that marriage is about procreation and providing the child with an environment in which they can thrive. The man’s father would offer gifts of knives, food or slaves to the new wife’s father in exchange for his loss of precious labour and kinship. 2. The diversity of traditional beliefs throughout the country leads to enormous diversity among African communities. The ultimate source of power for the deeply religious African tribe of the Samburu is their God Nakai. 90% of surveyed students disagreed with this practice, believing the father should pay the dowry and pay for the costs of the child (such as education). It is here that payment from the groom's family to the bride's is made and wedding rings are exchanged. Enormous economic growth within the continent has caused the bridewealth payment to inflate so significantly that many couples are now straying from the tradition, instead opting for other forms of marriage. The household book is given only to husband. The Mbororo African tribe comes from Chad. They may perform their own simplified ceremonies as a response to their economic conditions. Within many African communities, such as Nigerian ethnic groups, the engagement is where the traditional practices are performed. Population of Africa). When they are of age, boys are sent to spend several days or weeks in a circumcision lodge during winter, where they’re put through rigorous and often dangerous tests and rituals such as continuous dancing until exhaustion, and circumcision.  The study revealed that men were more likely to want a traditional marriage than women. In addition, the Family Code specifically addresses polyandry, but says nothing about polygamy. In rural areas it is common for men to have many wives. Alongside this comes a shift in attitude towards marriage and relationships. Jean-Baptiste, R., & Burrill, E. (2019). The results show a dramatic shift away from traditional beliefs within African communities, with young people holding more progressive attitudes towards relationships and marriage. The man’s father would offer gifts of knives, food or slaves to the new wife’s father in exchange for his loss of precious labour and kinship. In this particular tribe, the male beauty ideal is all about bright eyes and teeth, so men will often roll their e…  The family is typically involved within this process. The various marriage ceremonies performed in Africa begin with the initial introduction between the groom and bride. Traditionally, in the past single women in the Congo belonged to their fathers, and upon marriage their ownership would transfer to the husband. Marriage ceremonies within Africa vary greatly between countries due to the diversity of culture and religion throughout the continent. Most of the marriages are arranged by the families of the marrying partners. The study also revealed that 73% of young people surveyed believe that polygamy is an outdated process. Although the family structure varies greatly amongst different ethnic groups, much emphasis is placed on group goals and overall family welfare. Mbororo . Marriage and Bridewealth (Ilobolo) in Contemporary Zulu Society. Kyei in 1984, a revision of a report written originally in 1946, analysing the data concerning marriage and divorce Children are taught through folktales that families built on love and attraction risk damaging the foundation of their community. Among the Bemba people of Northern Zambia, marriage is matrilocal. Nelson Mandela is a descendant of the Xhosa tribe. Ogbu, J. Studies performed on students within Ghana showed strong evidence suggesting that young people within Africa are drawn towards civil or religious marriages as opposed to traditional marriages. Marriage among Rashaida tribe You may find these wedding rituals strange but their oddities are what make the ceremony exciting for those involved. A practice that dates back to ancient times is the dot or bride price. Congolese woman has to follow her husband wherever he thinks it’s appropriate to. Among the Chewa of Eastern Zambia, the custom of man living with his wife’s parents temporarily or permanently was known as Ukamwini.23 During the period earlier than 1940s, marriages remained completely matrilocal during t… This powerful exhibit of African tribal ceremonies reflects 30 years of commitment to preserving the endangered cultures and peoples of 90 tribes across Africa. African women. this Zo'e tribe is quite fascinating... no marriage... women have kids with different men, and vice versa. The wedding is an exceptionally respected tradition within Africa due to their deeply rooted appreciation for the notion of family. In the western region of the Democratic Republic of Congo families are mostly matrilineal (inheriting or determining decent through female line) with the mother’s brother as the male with the greatest authority in the family, rather than the husband. I like how the women use some compound in a special tree bark to regulate their menstrual cycle-- and they don't tell the men what bark it is!  This standpoint is particularly polarizing and has not been backed up by scientific data. 4. Cooking in village in Sud Africa. ( Log Out / By the time she gives birth to a third child, the marriage is officially tied. I map African polygamy in Figure 1. Journal of Social Sciences and Public Affairs, 4(1), 94-104. In rural areas certain harmful cultural practices continue to prevail. (2019). Some African couples are opting to bypass the legal marriage status entirely and alternatively having irregular unions as a symbol of their love and connection. In modern practice, the payment is typically in forms of cash. The wedding attire worn during these ceremonies depends heavily on the ethnic group being examined. It consists of an elaborate ceremony with heavy involvement from both families. African women and men of the Hamer ethnic group all together for the last walk at the end of the jumping of the bull ceremony near Turmi. Some anthropologists have also sought to read a "trial" approach into a different African phenomenon which is the gradualness of the African marriage process. “That is to say a man goes to live in his wife’s village, at any rate for the first years of his married life.”22 This is also true of marriage among other Zambian tribes like the Bisa, Lala, Lamba, Chewa, Kaonde, and many others.  When the parents believe the child is “ripe” for marriage, they will begin the process of seeking out a wife, often without the child knowing. Congolese woman still has her residence at her husband’s house. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 24(2), 149-156. https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/africa-population/, "Traditional marriage in Igboland: The original cultural way", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marriage_customs_in_Africa&oldid=993588803, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 11:34. 339-361, Posel, D., & Rudwick, S. (2014). Each point is a married woman for whom the DHS data gives geographic coordinates. The World Book encyclopedia. Bridewealth is when a groom's family pays the bride's family in traditional forms such as livestock, food and clothing to confirm the marriage. Only then can he get married. In other areas of the country, patriarchal and polygamous (having one or more wives) as well as combinations of these are common. ( Log Out / Many African communities believe marriage is primarily about procreation and providing for children as this is seen as the foundation of society. We’re talking, of course, about a courtship dance. The dot is often very high. Traditionally, in the past single women in the Congo belonged to their fathers, and upon marriage their ownership would transfer to the husband. It is common for the families to choose a colour to abide to in their dress code. African Studies Review, 57, pp 51-72 doi:10.1017/asr.2014.47. After the man has paid this, the woman would have to deliver two children before the marriage proceedings are complete. The aim is to have many children who will survive into adulthood, thus providing the household with a greater number of helpers to complete the chores necessary for survival. The elders, responsible for law and order are devout and follow his guidance in all matters. Africa is going through a rapid state of change and development, both in an economic sense and a social sense. Contemporary Marriage Processes in Nigeria: Willing Love, Perilous Business, Post-Marriage Problems.  A large majority of these students defended their answer by stating that everyone has a father while not everyone has an uncle. The British Journal of Sociology, 11(3), 197-210. doi:10.2307/586746. Red dots are polygamists, while blue dots are monogamists. After the marriage, a ritual is performed to demonstrate the virginity of the bride, the morning after the wedding night, the women from both sides of the family go to the couples bed and ask questions about the wedding night and check for the presence of blood, which provides evidence of virginity. Marriages.  These irregular unions are performed when travelling back to their community was unrealistic or unachievable. The researchers believe this may be due to a lack of support from their uncles with only 22% of students stating that their uncle had helped them throughout their education.. The village chiefs or headmen usually have more than one wife.  The married couple would have fairly minimal interaction with one another, to such an extent that the wife would often refer to her husband as the father of her sons name. Solanke, S., Ayodabo, S. (2017). Riggs, T. (2006). To many Africans, bridewealth is considered to be a crucial part of a marriage ceremony and the marriage will not be acknowledged until the bridewealth has been paid. Bridewealth is seen as a form of “insurance” for the bride's family, as they know that if economic hardship entails they are able to rely on the groom's family to care of them. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Mitchell, P. (1954). 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